Compactness Theorem

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Let $\LL$ be the language of predicate logic.

Let $T$ be a set of $\LL$-sentences.

Then $T$ is satisfiable if and only if $T$ is finitely satisfiable.


By definition, $T$ is finitely satisfiable means that every finite subset of $T$ is satisfiable.

Because the direction:

$T$ satisfiable implies $T$ finitely satisfiable

is trivial, the proofs below all justify the converse:

$T$ finitely satisfiable implies $T$ satisfiable.

Proof using Consistency Principle

By Extend Theory to Satisfy Witness Property, there exist a language $\LL^*$ and a set of $\LL^*$-sentences $T^*$ satisfying:

$T^* \models \paren {\exists x: \map \phi x} \implies \map \phi {x := c_\phi}$

Thus, it suffices to show that $T^*$ is satisfiable.

By Finitely Satisfiable Set of Sentences has Maximal Finitely Satisfiable Extension, there exists a set of $\LL^*$-sentences $T' \supseteq T^*$ such that:

For all $\LL^*$-sentences $\phi$, either $\phi \in T'$ or $\sqbrk {\neg \phi} \in T'$

As $T^* \subseteq T'$, it follows that the third property above continues to hold for $T'$.

Thus, by the lemma to Extend Theory to Satisfy Witness Property:

$T'$ satisfies the witness property

Additionally, any $\mathrm{PL}$-structure that models $T'$ will also model $T^*$.

But, by Maximal Finitely Satisfiable Theory with Witness Property is Satisfiable, there is such a $\mathrm{PL}$-structure.


Proof using Ultraproducts

The idea is to construct an ultraproduct using a purposefully selected ultrafilter and collection of models so that each sentence in $T$ will be realized as a result of Łoś's Theorem.

Let $\Sigma$ be the set of all finite subsets of $T$.

For every $\Sigma_0 \in \Sigma$, define:

$F_{\Sigma_0} = \set {\Delta \in \Sigma: \Sigma_0 \subseteq \Delta}$

That is, $F_{\Sigma_0}$ is the collection of all finite subsets of $T$ including $\Sigma_0$.

Clearly $F_{\Sigma_0}$ is a subset of $\Sigma$.

Now define:

$F = \set {F_{\Sigma_0}: \Sigma_0 \in \Sigma}$

a subset of $\powerset \Sigma$.

We claim this has the finite intersection property.

Take any finite collection $\ds \set {F_{\Sigma_k} }_{k = 1, 2, \dots, n}$ of elements on $F$, and observe that the set $\ds S = \bigcup_{k \mathop = 1}^n \Sigma_k$ is a finite subset of $T$.

That is, $S \in \Sigma$.

$S \in F_{\Sigma_k}$ for each $k$ by construction, and hence is in their intersection.

In fact, their intersection is $F_S$.

So the intersection of any finite collection of elements of $F$ is nonempty as claimed.

Since $F$, which is a set of subsets of $\Sigma$, has the finite intersection property, there is an ultrafilter $U$ on $\Sigma$ including it (by the corollary to the Ultrafilter Lemma).

If $\Sigma_0 \in \Sigma$, then by assumption it has a model $\AA_{\Sigma_0}$.


$\ds \AA = \paren {\prod_{\Sigma_k \mathop \in \Sigma} \AA_{\Sigma_k} } / U$

We verify $\AA \models T$.

Take any $\phi \in T$.

Observe that $F_{\set \phi} \in U$ by definition of $U$.

Furthermore, if we define $\Phi = \set {\Sigma_0 \in \Sigma: \AA_{\Sigma_0} \models \phi}$, we have $F_{\set \phi} \subseteq \Phi$.

Hence, since $U$ is a filter and $F_{\set \phi} \in U$, $\Phi \in U$.

Then Łoś's Theorem implies that $\AA \models \phi$.


Proof using Gödel's Completeness Theorem

This proof is by contraposition.

The idea is to exploit the finiteness of proofs and the relation between satisfiability and deducibility to show that if $T$ is not satisfiable, then it must have a finite subset which can be used to prove to a contradiction.

Suppose $T$ is not satisfiable.

Since $T$ has no models, it vacuously follows that $T \models \phi \wedge \neg \phi$ for some sentence $\phi$.

By Gödel's Completeness Theorem, this implies that $\phi \wedge \neg \phi$ is deducible from $T$.

But any deduction from $T$ involves only finitely many sentences from $T$.

This means that there is a finite subset $\Delta$ of $T$ such that $\phi \wedge \neg \phi$ is deducible from $\Delta$.

By Soundness of First-Order Logic, this means that $\Delta \models \phi \wedge \neg \phi$.

Thus $\Delta$ is not satisfiable.

By the Rule of Transposition, $\Delta$ is satisfiable implies $T$ is satisfiable.


Proof using Henkin Construction

This proof actually demonstrates a stronger form of the Compactness Theorem by showing:

If $T$ is finitely satisfiable and $\kappa$ is an infinite cardinal such that $\kappa > \size \LL$, then $T$ is satisfiable by a model whose cardinality is at most $\kappa$.

This is stronger than the original statement, since it provides extra information about the model that is claimed to exist.

The proof is said to use a Henkin Construction because it involves the construction of a model all of whose elements are interpretations of the constant symbols of some language.

Such a model was used in Leon Albert Henkin's proof of the Completeness Theorem.

This special feature of the constructed model is what allows us to control its cardinality.

First, by Extend Theory to Satisfy Witness Property, we can extend $\LL$ and $T$ to find a language $\LL^*$ of cardinality at most $\kappa$ and an $\LL^*$-theory $T^*$ such that all finitely satisfiable $\LL^*$-theories containing $T^*$ have the witness property.

Then, since finitely satisfiable theories have maximal finitely satisfiable extensions, we can find a finitely satisfiable $\LL^*$-theory $T'$ containing $T^*$ such that $T'$ contains either $\phi$ or $\neg\phi$ for each $\LL^*$-sentence $\phi$.

Note that $T'$ has the witness property since it contains $T^*$.

Finally, by Maximal Finitely Satisfiable Theory with Witness Property is Satisfiable, $T'$ has a model.

Moreover, since $\LL^*$ has cardinality at most $\kappa$ and hence has at most $\kappa$-many constant symbols, this theorem ensures that the model of $T'$ can be taken to have cardinality at most $\kappa$.


Also see