# De Morgan's Laws (Predicate Logic)/Denial of Existence

## Theorem

Let $\forall$ and $\exists$ denote the universal quantifier and existential quantifier respectively.

Then:

$\forall x: \neg \map P x \dashv \vdash \neg \paren {\exists x: \map P x}$
If everything is not, there exists nothing that is.

## Proof

By the tableau method of natural deduction:

$\forall x: \neg \map P x \vdash \neg \paren {\exists x: \map P x}$
Line Pool Formula Rule Depends upon Notes
1 1 $\forall x: \neg \map P x$ Premise (None)
2 2 $\exists x: \map P x$ Assumption (None)
3 2 $\map P {\mathbf a}$ Existential Instantiation 2 for an arbitrary $\mathbf a$
4 1 $\neg \map P {\mathbf a}$ Universal Instantiation 3
5 1, 2 $\bot$ Principle of Non-Contradiction: $\neg \EE$ 3, 4
6 1 $\neg \paren {\exists x: \map P x}$ Proof by Contradiction: $\neg \II$ 2 – 5 Assumption 2 has been discharged

$\Box$

By the tableau method of natural deduction:

$\neg \paren {\exists x: \map P x} \vdash \forall x: \neg \map P x$
Line Pool Formula Rule Depends upon Notes
1 1 $\neg \paren {\exists x: \map P x}$ Premise (None)
2 2 $\map P {\mathbf a}$ Assumption (None) for some arbitrary $\mathbf a$
3 2 $\exists x: \map P x$ Existential Generalisation 2
4 1, 2 $\bot$ Principle of Non-Contradiction: $\neg \EE$ 1, 3
5 1 $\neg \map P {\mathbf a}$ Proof by Contradiction: $\neg \II$ 2 – 4 Assumption 2 has been discharged
6 1 $\forall x: \neg \map P x$ Universal Generalisation 5 as $\mathbf a$ was arbitrary

$\blacksquare$

## Source of Name

This entry was named for Augustus De Morgan.