# Definition:Hilbert 23/Historical Note

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## Historical Note on the Hilbert 23

The **Hilbert 23** were delivered by David Hilbert in a famous address at Paris in $1900$.

He considered them to be the oustanding challenges to mathematicians in the future.

There was originally going to be a $24$th problem, on a criterion for simplicity and general methods in proof theory, but Hilbert decided not to include it, as it was (like numbers $4$, $6$, $16$ and $23$) too vague to ever be described as "solved".

## Sources

- 1986: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*... (previous) ... (next): $2 \cdotp 665 \, 144 \ldots$ - 1989: Ephraim J. Borowski and Jonathan M. Borwein:
*Dictionary of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next):**Hilbert's problems** - 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text {B}.18$: Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers. $e$ is Transcendental - 1997: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $2 \cdotp 66514 \, 4 \ldots$