Definition:Normal Subgroup/Definition 2

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Let $G$ be a group.

Let $N$ be a subgroup of $G$.

$N$ is a normal subgroup of $G$ if and only if:

Every right coset of $N$ in $G$ is a left coset

that is:

The right coset space of $N$ in $G$ equals its left coset space.


The statement that $N$ is a normal subgroup of $G$ is represented symbolically as $N \lhd G$.

A normal subgroup is often represented by the letter $N$, as opposed to $H$ (which is used for a general subgroup which may or may not be normal).

To use the notation introduced in the definition of the conjugate:

$N \lhd G \iff \forall g \in G: N^g = N$

Also known as

It is usual to describe a normal subgroup of $G$ as normal in $G$.

Some sources refer to a normal subgroup as an invariant subgroup or a self-conjugate subgroup.

This arises from Definition 6:

$\forall g \in G: \paren {n \in N \iff g \circ n \circ g^{-1} \in N}$
$\forall g \in G: \paren {n \in N \iff g^{-1} \circ n \circ g \in N}$

which is another way of stating that $N$ is normal if and only if $N$ stays the same under all inner automorphisms of $G$.

See Inner Automorphism Maps Subgroup to Itself iff Normal.

Some sources use distinguished subgroup.

Also see