Image of Intersection under Injection/Proof 2

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Let $S$ and $T$ be sets.

Let $f: S \to T$ be a mapping.


$\forall A, B \subseteq S: f \sqbrk {A \cap B} = f \sqbrk A \cap f \sqbrk B$

if and only if $f$ is an injection.


From Image of Intersection under Mapping:

$f \sqbrk {A \cap B} \subseteq f \sqbrk A \cap f \sqbrk B$

which holds for all mappings.

It remains to be shown that:

$f \sqbrk A \cap f \sqbrk B \subseteq f \sqbrk {A \cap B}$

if and only if $f$ is an injection.

Sufficient Condition

Suppose that:

$\forall A, B \subseteq S: f \sqbrk {A \cap B} = f \sqbrk A \cap f \sqbrk B$

If $S$ is singleton, then $f$ is a fortiori an injection from Mapping from Singleton is Injection.

So, assume $S$ is not singleton.

Aiming for a contradiction, suppose $f$ is specifically not an injection.


$\exists x, y \in S: \exists z \in T: \tuple {x, z} \in T, \tuple {y, z} \in T, x \ne y$

and of course $\set x \subseteq S, \set y \subseteq S$.


$z \in f \sqbrk {\set x}$
$z \in f \sqbrk {\set y}$

and so by definition of intersection:

$z \in f \sqbrk {\set x} \cap f \sqbrk {\set y}$


$\set x \cap \set y = \O$

Thus from a corollary to Image of Empty Set is Empty Set:

$f \sqbrk {\set x \cap \set y} = \O$

and so:

$f \sqbrk {\set x \cap \set y} \ne f \sqbrk {\set x} \cap f \sqbrk {\set y}$

But by hypothesis:

$\forall A, B \subseteq S: f \sqbrk {A \cap B} = f \sqbrk A \cap f \sqbrk B$

From this contradiction it follows that $f$ is an injection.


Necessary Condition

Let $f$ be an injection.

It is necessary to show:

$f \sqbrk {S_1} \cap f \sqbrk {S_2} \subseteq f \sqbrk {S_1 \cap S_2}$

Let $t \in f \sqbrk {S_1} \cap f \sqbrk {S_2}$.


\(\ds t\) \(\in\) \(\ds f \sqbrk {S_1} \cap f \sqbrk {S_2}\)
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds t\) \(\in\) \(\ds f \sqbrk {S_1}\) Definition of Set Intersection
\(\, \ds \land \, \) \(\ds t\) \(\in\) \(\ds f \sqbrk {S_2}\)
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds \exists s_1 \in S_1, s_2 \in S_2: \, \) \(\ds t\) \(=\) \(\ds \map f {s_1}\) Definition of Image of Subset under Mapping
\(\, \ds \land \, \) \(\ds t\) \(=\) \(\ds \map f {s_2}\)
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds \map f {s_1}\) \(=\) \(\ds \map f {s_2}\)
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds s_1\) \(=\) \(\ds s_2\) Definition of Injection
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds s_1 = s_2\) \(\in\) \(\ds S_1\)
\(\, \ds \land \, \) \(\ds s_1 = s_2\) \(\in\) \(\ds S_2\)
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds s_1 = s_2\) \(\in\) \(\ds S_1 \cap S_2\) Definition of Set Intersection
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds \map f {s_1} = \map f {s_2}\) \(\in\) \(\ds f \sqbrk {S_1 \cap S_2}\) Image of Element is Subset
\(\ds \leadsto \ \ \) \(\ds f \sqbrk {S_1} \cap f \sqbrk {S_2}\) \(\subseteq\) \(\ds f \sqbrk {S_1 \cap S_2}\) Definition of Subset

So if $f$ is an injection, it follows that:

$f \sqbrk {S_1 \cap S_2} = f \sqbrk {S_1} \cap f \sqbrk {S_2}$


Putting the results together, we see that:

$f \sqbrk {S_1 \cap S_2} = f \sqbrk {S_1} \cap f \sqbrk {S_2}$ if and only if $f$ is an injection.