# Klein Four-Group as Order 2 Matrices

## Theorem

Let $G$ be the set of order $2$ square matrices:

$G = \set {I, A, B, C}$

where:

$I = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}, \quad A = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix}, \quad B = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}, \quad C = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix}$

Then the algebraic structure $\struct {G, \times}$, where $\times$ denotes (conventional) matrix multiplication, forms the Klein four-group.

## Proof

From Unit Matrix is Unity of Ring of Square Matrices, $I$ can be identified as the unit matrix of order $2$.

Then:

$A^2 = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = I$
$A B = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = C$
$A C = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = B$
$B^2 = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = I$
$B A = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = C$
$B C = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = A$
$C^2 = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = I$
$C A = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = B$
$C B = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} = A$

Putting this together into a Cayley table:

$\begin{array}{c|cccccc}  & I & A & B & C \\  \hline I & I & A & B & C \\ A & A & I & C & B \\ B & B & C & I & A \\ C & C & B & A & I \\ \end{array}$

it is verified by inspection that this is an instance of the Klein four-group.

$\blacksquare$