# Mathematician:Jean le Rond d'Alembert

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## Mathematician

French mathematician, physicist and philosopher best known for his contribution to the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra -- he produced a flawed proof which was later patched up by Gauss.

Devised a technique for solving the linear second order ODE with constant coefficients whose auxiliary equation has repeated roots.

## Nationality

French

## History

- Born: 16 November 1717, Paris
- 1741: Elected into the Académie des Sciences, after several failed attempts
- 1746: Elected to the Berlin Academy
- 1754: Elected a member of the Académie française
- 9 April 1772: Became Permanent Secretary of the Académie française
- Died: 29 October 1783, Paris

## Theorems and Definitions

- An initial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, corrected by Gauss (in France it is also known as D'Alembert's Theorem or the D'Alembert-Gauss Theorem)
- D'Alembertian Operator
- D'Alembert's Paradox
- D'Alembert System
- D'Alembert's Formula
- D'Alembert's Principle
- D'Alembert's Test (also known as the Cauchy Ratio Test, for Augustin Louis Cauchy, or just the Ratio Test)

- Famously expressed a belief in
*Croix ou Pile*in the Gambler's Fallacy: the more times a coin comes up tails, the more likely it then is to come up heads.

Results named for **Jean le Rond d'Alembert** can be found here.

## Publications

- July 1739: Pointed out errors in Reynaud's standard 1708 with
*L'analyse démontrée*in a communication to the Académie des Sciences.

- 1740:
*Mémoire sur la réfraction des corps solides*(Memorandum on the refraction of solid bodies), recognised by Clairaut.

- 1743:
*Traité de dynamique*

- 1751 - 1765: Co-editor with Denis Diderot of the
*Encyclopédie*.

*Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot*

*Croix ou Pile*

## Also known as

Full name: **Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert**.

## Sources

- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Jean le Rond d'Alembert": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

- 1971: Allan Clark:
*Elements of Abstract Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): Introduction - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**d'Alembert, Jean le Rond**(1717-83) - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**d'Alembert, Jean le Rond**(1717-83) - 2021: Richard Earl and James Nicholson:
*The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics*(6th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**D'Alembert, Jean-Baptiste le Rond**(1717-83)