# Preimages All Exist iff Surjection

## Theorem

Let $f: S \to T$ be a mapping.

Let $f^{-1}$ be the inverse of $f$.

Let $\map {f^{-1} } t$ be the preimage of $t \in T$.

Then $\map {f^{-1} } t$ is empty for no $t \in T$ if and only if $f$ is a surjection.

### Corollary

- $\forall B \subseteq T, B \ne \O: f^{-1} \sqbrk B \ne \O$

- $f$ is a surjection

where $f^{-1} \sqbrk B$ denotes the preimage of $B \subseteq T$.

## Proof 1

### Necessary Condition

We use a Proof by Contraposition.

To that end, suppose:

- $\exists t \in T: \map {f^{-1} } t = \O$

That is:

- $\neg \paren {\forall t \in T: \exists s \in S: \map f s = t}$

So, by definition, $f: S \to T$ is not a surjection.

From Rule of Transposition it follows that if $f$ is a surjection:
$\neg \exists t \in T: \map {f^{-1} } t = \O$

$\Box$

### Sufficient Condition

We again use a Proof by Contraposition.

To that end, suppose $f$ is not a surjection.

Then by definition:

- $\exists t \in T: \neg \paren {\exists s \in S: \map f s = t}$

That is:

- $\exists t \in T: \map {f^{-1} } t = \O$

From Rule of Transposition it follows that if $\neg \exists t \in T: \map {f^{-1} } t = \O$, then $f$ is a surjection.

$\blacksquare$

## Direct Proof

Suppose that there is no $t \in T$ such that $\map {f^{-1} } t$ is empty.

By Denial of Existence, this is equivalent to saying that for all $t \in T$, $\map {f^{-1} } t$ is not empty.

This is equivalent to the statement that $\map {f^{-1} } t$ contains at least one element for each $t \in T$.

In other words, for each $t \in T$, there exists an $s\in S$ such that $\map f s = t$.

This is the definition of $f$ being surjective.

Thus if there is no $t \in T$ such that $\map {f^{-1} } t$ is empty, then $f$ is surjective.

Since this proof only uses statements of equivalence, it also shows that $f$ being surjective implies that there is no $t \in T$ such that $\map {f^{-1} } t$ is empty.

$\blacksquare$