# Banach-Alaoglu Theorem/Proof 1

## Theorem

Let $X$ be a separable normed vector space.

Then the closed unit ball in its normed dual $X^*$ is sequentially compact with respect to the weak-$\ast$ topology.

## Proof

The aim of this proof is to show the following:

Given a bounded sequence in $X^*$, there exists a weakly convergent subsequence of that bounded sequence.

Let $\sequence {l_n}_{n \mathop \in \N}$ be a bounded sequence in $X^*$.

Let $\sequence {x_n}_{n \mathop \in \N}$ be a countable dense subset of $X$.

Choose subsequences $\N \supset \Lambda_1 \supset \Lambda_2 \supset \ldots$ such that:

$\forall j \in \N: \map {l_k} {x_j} \to a_j =: \map l {x_j}$

as $k \to \infty$, $k \in \Lambda_j$.

Let $\Lambda$ be the diagonal sequence.

### Lemma 1

$l$ can be extended to an element of $X^*$.

$\Box$

### Lemma 2

$l_k \stackrel {\omega^*} {\to} l$ as $k \to \infty$, $k \in \Lambda$.

$\Box$

## Also known as

The Banach-Alaoglu Theorem is also known just as Alaoglu's Theorem.

## Source of Name

This entry was named for Stefan Banach and Leonidas Alaoglu.