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An object is a thing.
Everything that can be talked about in mathematics and logic can be referred to as an object.
Also known as
Another word used in this context is entity.
As an example, $3$ is the proper name for a particular object, in this case a number.
This particular number can also be identified by using, for example, the property: being the smallest positive odd prime number.
- Definition:Object Variable: a symbol used as a variable to refer to a general object.
- Definition:Proper Name: a symbol used to identify a particular object.
Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) was one of the first to consider such a basic abstraction as an object.
In his idiosyncratic style, he used the word thing.
- 1965: Seth Warner: Modern Algebra ... (next): Chapter $\text I$: Algebraic Structures: $\S 1$: The Language of Set Theory
- 1975: T.S. Blyth: Set Theory and Abstract Algebra ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1$. Sets; inclusion; intersection; union; complementation; number systems
- 1975: Bert Mendelson: Introduction to Topology (3rd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Theory of Sets: $\S 2$: Sets and Subsets
- 1977: William Warren Bartley, III: Lewis Carroll's Symbolic Logic
- 1993: Keith Devlin: The Joy of Sets: Fundamentals of Contemporary Set Theory (2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1$: Naive Set Theory: $\S 1.1$: What is a Set?
- 1993: Richard J. Trudeau: Introduction to Graph Theory ... (previous) ... (next): $2$. Graphs: Sets