# Mathematician:Eudoxus of Cnidus

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## Mathematician

Greek astronomer and mathematician.

Pioneered work on proportion.

Introduced the astronomical globe.

Developed the method of exhaustion, this being an early precursor to integral calculus. This was later exploited by Archimedes.

Studied and practised medicine, and was also a practising legislator.

Studied in Tarentum under Archytas.

Moved to Athens, where he became a student of Plato.

Later in life, having become unpopular in Athens, moved to Cyzicus where he spent the remainder of his life.

## Nationality

Greek

## History

- Born: 410 or 408 BCE, Cnidus (on Resadiye peninsula), Asia Minor (now Knidos, Turkey)
- Died: 355 or 347 BCE, Cnidus, Asia Minor (now Turkey)

## Theorems and Definitions

Definitions of concepts named for **Eudoxus of Cnidus** can be found here.

## Works

No written works of his survive, although there are plenty of secondary sources.

These are the names of some of the books he wrote:

*Disappearances of the Sun*, possibly on eclipses*Oktaeteris*(*Ὀκταετηρίς*), on an eight-year lunisolar cycle of the calendar*Phaenomena*(*Φαινόμενα*) and*Entropon*(*Ἔντροπον*), on spherical astronomy, probably based on observations made by Eudoxus in Egypt and Cnidus*On Speeds*, on planetary motions

## Sources

- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Eudoxus of Cnidus": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

- 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text{II}$: Modern Minds in Ancient Bodies - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Eudoxus of Cnidus**(*c.*400-*c.*350 bc) - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**exhaustion** - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Eudoxus of Cnidus**(*c.*400-*c.*350 bc) - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**exhaustion** - 2008: Ian Stewart:
*Taming the Infinite*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $2$: The Logic of Shape: Taming irrationals - 2014: Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson:
*The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics*(5th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Eudoxus of Cnidus**(about 380 bc)