# Mathematician:Isaac Newton

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## Mathematician

Hugely influential English all-rounder famous for:

- Inventing calculus, independently of Leibniz
- Successfully providing a mathematical model for the force of gravity
- Formulating the Principle of Conservation of Momentum and Principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum
- Building the first practical optical reflecting telescope
- Developing a theory of colour based on the splitting of light with a prism

and much more.

It is suspected nowadays that he may have had Asperger's syndrome.

Because of a supposed feud between him and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, over priority over the Calculus, fuelled unwisely by his colleagues and supposed friends, the cutting edge of analysis passed to the Continent, and England was left in a mathematical backwater.

Spent much of his childhood constructing functional mechanical toys which he shared with his friends in the village.

## Nationality

English

## History

- Born: 25 December 1642 in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England (4 January 1643 new style)
- 1665: Returned home from Cambridge on closure of universities on account of plague
- 1667: Returned to Cambridge
- 1669: Accepted the position of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, passed to him by Isaac Barrow, who stepped down in his favour
- 1696: Became Warden of the Mint and was charged with reforming the national coinage
- 1699: Promoted to Master of the Mint
- 1701 -- 1702: Represented Cambridge University in Parliament
- 1703: Elected President of the Royal Society
- 1705: Knighted by Queen Anne
- Died: 31 March 1727 in London, England (20 March 1726 according to the Old Style)

## Theorems and Definitions

### Mathematics

- Newton Quotient
- Newton-Mercator Series (independently of Nicholas Mercator, also discovered by GrĂ©goire de Saint-Vincent)
- Newton's Method for approximating the zeroes of a function, also known as Newton-Raphson Method, independently of Joseph Raphson
- Newtonian Notation for Derivatives
- Newtonian Potential

- The Gregory-Newton Forward Difference Formula (with James Gregory), also known as:

- The Gregory-Newton Backward Difference Formula (with James Gregory), also known as:

- General Binomial Theorem
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
- Newton's Three-Eighths Rule (also known as just Newton's Rule)
- Newton-Girard Formulas (independently of Albert Girard), also known as Newton's Identities

### Physics

- Newtonian Frame of Reference (also known as Inertial Frame of Reference)
- Newtonian Physics (also known as Newtonian Mechanics)

- Newton (unit of force)
- Newton-Metre (unit of torque)

- Newton-Cotes Rule (with Roger Cotes) (also known as Newton-Cotes Formulas)

Results named for **Isaac Newton** can be found here.

Definitions of concepts named for **Isaac Newton** can be found here.

## Publications

- c. 1664:
*Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae*(Certain Philosophical Questions) - 1669:
*On Analysis by Means of Equations with an Infinite Number of Terms* - 1684:
*De Motu Corporum in Gyrum* - 1687:
*Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica*(usually referred to as the*Principia*) - 1704:
*Opticks* - 1707:
*Arithmetica Universalis*- 1720:
*Universal Arithmetick, Or, A Treatise of Arithmetical Composition and Resolution*(with Edmund Halley and Joseph Raphson) (translation of*Arithmetica Universalis*)

- 1720:
- 1736:
*Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series*

## Notable Quotes

*If I have seen a little farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.*

*I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.*- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*: Chapter $\text{VI}$: On the Seashore

- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:

*I do not frame hypotheses.*

*Absolute space, in its own nature, without regard to anything external, remains always similar and immovable ... Absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and of its own nature, flows equably and without regard to anything external.*

## Critical View

*I recognise the lion by his print.*- -- Johann Bernoulli, on seeing Newton's solution to his brachistochrone problem

*The method of Fluxions [i.e. the calculus] is the general key by help whereof the modern mathematicians unlock the secrets of Geometry, and consequently of Nature.*

*Nobody since Newton has been able to use geometrical methods to the same extent for the like purposes; and as we read the**Principia*we feel as when we are in an ancient armoury where the weapons are of gigantic size; and as we look at them we marvel at what manner of man he was who could use as a weapon what we can scarcely lift as a burden.

*Nature to him was an open book, whose letters he could read without effort.*

*Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night:**God said, "Let Newton be!" and all was light.*

## Sources

- 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text{VI}$: On the Seashore - 1966: Isaac Asimov:
*Understanding Physics*... (previous) ... (next): $\text {I}$: Motion, Sound and Heat: Chapter $3$: The Laws of Motion: Inertia - 1972: George F. Simmons:
*Differential Equations*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 3$: Appendix $\text B$: Newton - 1986: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*... (previous) ... (next): A List of Mathematicians in Chronological Sequence - 1989: Ephraim J. Borowski and Jonathan M. Borwein:
*Dictionary of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next):**Newton, Isaac**(1643-1727) - 1991: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Geometry*... (previous) ... (next): A Chronological List Of Mathematicians - 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text {A}.18$: Newton ($\text {1642}$ – $\text {1727}$) - 1992: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Puzzles*... (previous) ... (next): Prince Rupert's Cube - 1997: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): A List of Mathematicians in Chronological Sequence - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Newton, Isaac**(1642-1727) - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Newton, Isaac**(1642-1727) - 2008: Ian Stewart:
*Taming the Infinite*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $8$: The System of the World - 2014: Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson:
*The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics*(5th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Newton, Isaac**(1642-1727)